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Local water treatment plants – Types and features of operation

The problem of supplying the population with quality drinking water is relevant in the modern technogenic world. Even after cleaning with public utilities, the quality of the water supplied through the water supply leaves much to be desired. This is due to the use of outdated equipment.  In this regard, local water treatment plants are widely used. Thanks to such installations, it is possible to obtain high-quality drinking water from any sources (reservoirs, wells, water supply systems). Water is purified from all kinds of impurities using installations based on membrane technology.

Their advantage is a high degree of purification in one stage. Therefore, there is no need to use different technological chains. Regardless of the contamination of the input water, you will get a stable filtrate quality at the outlet. As a result of using this technology, it is possible to obtain a maximum of clean water and reduce the amount of discharge, which allows the use of waste-free water treatment technologies .

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Local water treatment plants:

have a high level of efficiency and low energy costs. Basically, the plants are made of polymeric materials, therefore they are durable. They occupy small areas and are fully automated, that is, they do not require constant maintenance. They are primarily used for water conditioning and purification by filtration, ozonation, activated carbon sorption and disinfection of anthropogenic contaminants. For this, ultraviolet radiation can be used. It provides the inactivation of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi. Filtration removes salts of heavy metals, and also removes iron and manganese . Combined filters allow you to simultaneously remove a wide range of harmful substances.

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When using local installations in industry, the degree of purification depends on the requirements and conditions of the technological processes. In everyday conditions, an average indicator of the degree of purification is selected. Depending on water pollution, the basic unit is equipped with special filtering equipment. Local – this means designed specifically for a specific purpose. For example, softeners – are designed to produce soft water, which is ideal for bathing and washing. Installations UV-disinfection of water disinfect water for household, drinking and industrial needs by irradiating the treated fluid with ultraviolet rays. Reverse osmosis plants are very compact – they can be installed where there is little free space. They are intended for desalination of water for household, drinking and industrial purposes.

Local water treatment plants for swimming pools include the most modern equipment, they clean well, disinfect the water of any pools, exercise control over water quality, which reduces the time of preventive measures. Local installations are used to treat not only drinking, but also wastewater. Such plants are divided, depending on the main cleaning methods, into mechanical, biological, chemical. Based on this, they will differ in size or in difficulty in operation. For example, mechanical treatment plants will differ in larger dimensions than biological ones. However, it is important to have a properly selected cleaning method for each specific case. For example, a coalescent separator is designed to separate petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, automotive or industrial oil. Such structures are closed water supply systems.

The most effective are local water treatment plants that combine all three treatment methods. Today, most structures operate on this principle. For mechanical water purification, removal of sand, suspensions, rust, colloidal substances, filtration units with mechanical cleaning filters are used. Iron removal plants allow the removal of iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulfide compounds from water. Adsorption units are used to remove residual chlorine, to eliminate taste, odor, and color of water. Softening units are used to reduce water hardness. In addition, special filter fillers perform complex water purification and can remove iron, nitrates, nitrites, sulfates, ammonium, and heavy salts from it. metals and organic compounds. Ultra filtration plants are used to purify water from surface sources from colloidal and suspended particles, microorganisms. The most perfect and complete water purification from all impurities and contaminants is performed by reverse osmosis plants. The latest technologies have allowed combining different types of water treatment plants into one combined Nerex installation.

Filtration :

Plants The filtration plants manufactured by Nerex are reagent-free filters. All of them are unified. The difference lies in the filter material, which is loaded into the same technological apparatus.
Three main groups of reagent-free filters are distinguished:
– for mechanical water purification,
– iron removers (removal of iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide)
– carbon filters (sorption or dehlorators).

Filtration plants with filters for mechanical purification of water are used to remove mechanical particles, sand, rust, suspensions, and also colloidal substances.Iron removal plants If the water contains a lot of dissolved iron, then when it settles or heats up, the water becomes brown because iron is intensively oxidized. On plumbing, water with a high iron content leaves rusty red spots.In addition, the precipitate, which hardens on the internal surfaces, clogs heat exchangers, radiators, pipelines. Water mixed with iron increases the risk of heart attacks, causes liver diseases and adversely affects the skin.

Forms of iron in water: 

– ferrous iron – Fe2 + ions;
– ferric iron (chlorides and sulfates of Fe3 + dissolve well in water, however, Fe3 + ions are hydrolyzed into insoluble hydroxide Fe (OH) 3, which is in the form of a suspension or precipitate);
– organic iron – various soluble complexes with natural organic acids; usually has a colloidal structure;
– bacterial iron – is a waste product of iron bacteria.

In water, iron is initially in a dissolved state. The task of any de-ironing filter is to transfer the dissolved iron into a precipitate (oxidize it), and then to retain it in the filter material. Reagent-free filters for iron oxidation use atmospheric oxygen. Reagent-free deferrizers are more effective than reagent deoxidants, because for the stable operation of reagent systems, a constant presence of a fresh oxidizer solution of a certain concentration is necessary.

iron removal plants remove iron (Fe2 +, Fe3 +), manganese (Mn3 +, Mn4 +) compounds, suspended particles from water, and also reduces hydrogen sulfide content and oxidizability. The filtering material –  operates in difficult conditions – at low pH, iron content up to 20 mg / l, high turbidity and oxidizability.

Softening systems:

Water hardness is one of the most urgent problems. It is caused by the content in water of a large number of hardness salts – carbonic and sulfate salts of calcium, magnesium and iron. Hard water is not suitable for cooking and drinking. For modern household appliances, hot water supply and heating systems, plumbing – water hardness is a real threat. When heated, hardness salts precipitate – scale, which is a common cause of breakdowns of heating boilers and pipes, plumbing, household appliances.

Ultra filtration plants:

These installations are used to purify water from surface sources – rivers, lakes, wells. They allow you to clean it of bacteria, viruses and suspended particles, the sizes of which are larger than the pore size of the membrane (0.02 microns). Ultra filtration is an alternative to the traditional water treatment scheme: chlorination contact capacity pump mechanical filtration adsorption on activated carbon. Ultra filtration does not use any reagents, therefore, purified water is safe for humans and does not contain decomposition products of organics, disinfectants, etc.
ultra filtration plants, when the need for purified water is more than 3m3 / hour, are cheaper than traditional treatment schemes. In addition, they take up significantly less space and produce high-quality purified water.

Reverse osmosis plants:

Reverse osmosis plants perform demineralization and deep water purification from most known contaminants. Today, reverse osmosis, or in other words reverse osmosis water purification, provides the highest quality and most complete water purification. Malicious elements such as nitrites and nitrates, heavy metals, chlorine, all microorganisms and viruses are completely removed from the water.

The main advantages of  reverse osmosis systems are
: favorable price, long service life, high system reliability,
– low power consumption when using low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes,
– complete system configuration and readiness for installation without any finishing work at the installation site,
– longer membrane life due to use automatic two-stage cleaning
– no need for membrane preservation, as in standby mode, the automatic flushing,
– simple, convenient and reliable sound control Leniye system through microprocessor controller,
– harmonious interaction of various system components
– the minimum volume of wastewater discharge is 25% of the volume of water entering the system;
– the degree of water purification and salt removal is 99.9%;
– the availability of documents confirming the possibility of using the systems for drinking water treatment.

 Modular Filters modular filters

Depending on the modification, the combined equipment EVO includes the following equipment:
– pump,
– cartridge filter,
– filtration unit,
– deferrization
unit,
– adsorption unit, – softener unit,
– antiscalant dosing station,
– reverse osmosis unit,
– carbon filter or mineralizing cartridge,
– cartridge filter with briquette charcoal,
– UV disinfectant.

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